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年度发展总体概况

2002年: 土地持续利用与土地科学学科环球体育

发布时间:2012-07-09 15:35文章来源:环球体育_环球体育app下载-官网APP下载 打印

  congxinshijikaishi,huanqiutiyuguojinrulequanmianhuanqiutiyuxiaokangshehui,jiakuaituijinshehuizhuyixiandaihuadexindefazhanjieduan。suizhechengshihuahegongyehuajinchengdetuijin,duitudidexuqiuyuguoneitudixiquezhijiandemaodungengweituchu。tudishihuanjingdezhongyaozuchengbufen,baohutudiyouqibaohugengdishibaohuhuanjingdezhongyaoneirong。20shijizhongqiyilai,quanqiuxingderenkou、ziyuan、huanjing、liangshihenengyuanwentituchu,zheixiewentidejiejuedouzhijiehuojianjiediyutudiziyuanhetudiliyongwentiyouguan,baozhengliangshianquan、ziyuananquanhehuanjinganquanshuodaodishiyigetudianquanwenti,zheiyiqieweitudikexuexuekefazhantigonglexindetiaozhanheqiji。

环球体育  yi、guojishangtudichixuliyonggainiandetichu

  youyudiqiushangdeziyuanchuliangyuhuanjingrongliangshiyouxiande,yincirenleiyaoyoukechixufazhandesixianglaiduidaishengchanheshenghuofangshi。zi1992nianshijiehuanjingyufazhandahuifabiaole《21shijiyicheng》yilai,diqiuxitongderenkouchengzailishikechixufazhanzuizhongyaodejichulilunzhiyi,yeshitudikexuedehexinwenti。

  tudichixuliyong(sustainable land use)desixiangshi1990nianxindelizhaokaideshouciguojitudichixuliyongxitongyantaohuishangzhengshiquerende。1991nian9yuezaitaiguoqingmaijuxingde“fazhanzhongguojiachixutudiguanli”,1993nian6yuezaijianadajuxingde“21shijichixutudiguanli”, liangciguojixueshutaolunhuidoutichulechixutudiguanlidegainian、jibenyuanzehepingjiagangyao。youyubutongxuezheduitudizheigeziranjingjizonghetiderenshijiaodudechayiheduitudishuxingjiqigongnengdecezhongbutong,tudichixuliyongdegainianyegebuxiangtong。young(1990)renweitudichixuliyongshi“huodegaodeshouhuochanliang,bingbaochitudilaiyishengchandeziyuan,congerweichiyunxudeshengchanli。”harthesandrenweitudiliyongxitongshiliyongziranheshehuiziyuan、shengchandechanpinqishehuijingjihuanjingjiazhichaoguoshangpinxingtouru,tongshinengweichijianglaidetudishengchanlijiziranziyuanhuanjing。lianheguokechixufazhanweiyuanhui(uncsd)kaizhanleyigezhuanmenyanjiukechixufazhanzhibiaodexiangmu,zai“qudongli(driving force)—zhuangtai(state)—xiangying(response)”gainianmoxingdejichushang,jianyiyingyong“tudiliyongbianhua”(land use change)zheixiangzhibiaolaifanyingyingxiangtudiziyuankechixuliyongderenleihuodong,guochenghegeju,yingyong“tudizhuangkuangbianhua”(changes in land conditions)zheixiangzhibiaolaifanyingtudiziyuankechixuzhuangtai。yingyong“ziyuanguanliquanxiafangzhidifang”zheixiangzhibiaolaipingjiageguozhengfuweishixiantudiziyuandekechixuguanlizaizhengceshang、zhidushangsuozuochudexiangyingxingwei。zaiqudongli—zhuangtai—xiangyingzhibiaokuangjiazhong,“tudiliyongbianhua”shiqudonglizhibiao,“tudizhuangkuangbianhua”shizhuangtaizhibiao,“guanliquanxiafang”shixiangyingzhibiao。

  er、2002nianguoneitudikexueyanjiudexintupo

环球体育  2002niantudikexueyanjiudezhongdianzaitudikechixuliyong、tudidiaochayupingjia、tudiguihua、tudijingjidengfangmian,qichengguozhuyaoyou:

  1.luccyutudiziyuankechixuliyongyanjiuqudexinjinzhan

  tudiliyong/fubeibianhua(lucc)shiquanqiuhuanjingbianhuadezhongyaozuchengbufenhezhuyaoyuanyinzhiyi,“guojidiquanyushengwuquanjihua”(igbp)he“quanqiuhuanjingbianhuaderenwenlingyujihua”(ihdp)yu1995nianlianhetichule“tudiliyong/tudifubeibianhua”yanjiujihua。zhongguoshiluccyanjiujihuazuizaofaqizhezhiyi,guoneixuezhejishihuyingbinggenzongguojiluccyanjiu,kaizhanlexuduoxiangguangongzuo。jinnianlai,huanqiutiyuguozailuccyanjiudexuduofangmiandouqudelexinjinzhan。zaidongtaixinxidehuoqufangmianzhuyaoshifazhanlemianxianggongchengmubiaobingjiezhu3s(rs、gps、gis)jichengjishudetudiliyongdongtaijiancefangfa;zaifenleifangmianzhuyaoshitigaolegaofenbianlvyingxiangfenleijingdu;zaizhitufangmianzhuyaoshitichuleyanjiu“tupudanyuan”helucctupudegainianmoxing;zaiqudonglifangmian,zhuyaoshiguangfanyingyongduozhongxitongfenxiyushulitongjifangfaconggegejiaodujinxingyanjiu;ermuqianguoneijianlideluccmoxingdazhikefenweixitongzhenduanmoxing、tudiliyongdongtaibianhuamoxinghetudiliyongbianhuazonghepingjiamoxingsanzhong;duilucchuanjingxiaoyingdeyanjiujibaokuoquanqiuxingxitongbianhua,yebaokuoquyuxingleijibianhua;zaiyukechixufazhandeguanxifangmianzhuyaoshichanshulezhongguotudikechixuliyongzhibiaotixidelilunyufangfayijifenqufangandezhiding。

环球体育  tudiziyuandekechixuliyongshihuanqiutiyuguoshixiankechixufazhanzhanlvedejibenbaozhang。2002nianhuanqiutiyuguozaitudikechixuliyongyanjiufangmiandechengguozhuyaoyou: duimuqianguoneiwaitudichixuliyongpingjiafangfajinxinglexitongguina、tilian,fenxilemeizhongfangfadetedianheshiyongfanwei;fenbiejianlilefanyingzhongguotudiziyuantezhenghetudiliyongtezhengdequanguo11getudiliyongqudetudichixuliyongpingjiazhibiaotixiheyingyongzheixiezhibiaojinxingtudichixuliyongpingjiadefangfa;goujianleshiyongxianyukaizhantudichixuliyongpingjiadezhidaoxingzhibiaotixikuangjia;tongguofenxihuanqiutiyuguochengshiyongdixitongdexianzhuangjicunzaidewenti,tichulechengshiyongdichixuliyongpingjiazhibiaotixikuangjia;zaifenxihuanqiutiyuguogengdiliyongtezhengjiqituchudeshiwuanquanbaozhenggongnengdejichushang,goujianlefuhehuanqiutiyuguogengdiziyuantezhengdechixuliyongpingjiazhibiaotixi。goujianlelindichixuliyongpingjiazhibiaotixizongtikuangjiajiquyu、senlinjingyingdanwei、shengchanlinhefeishengchanlin(gongyilin)dengbutongcengci,jibutonglinzhongdelindikechixuliyongpingjiazhibiaotixi。tongguofenxihuanqiutiyuguogequyucaodiziyuanliyongxianzhuang,goujianlezhongguocaodiliyongchixuxingpingjiazhibiaotixi;genjujianlidetudichixuliyongpingjiazhibiaotixi,tichulebutongchiduhecengcidetudichixuliyongzhibiaojiancefangfa,goujianlejiancetixi。

  2.tudiziyuandiaocha、pingjiayuyaoganjiancequdexinchengguo

环球体育  tudidiaochapingjiadeyanjiujutibaokuotudiliyongjichutujianyushujugengxinjishu,gaofenbianlvweixingyaoganshujuzaitudiziyuandiaochazhongdeyingyong,nongyongdifendengdingjiyugujiadelilunyufangfayijiqichengguodeyingyonghetudiziyuanheliliyongzhibiaotixiyupingjiafangfayanjiudengxiangneirong,tichuleyitaowanzhengdeliyonghangkong、hangtianyaoganzhengsheyingxiangtujinxingtudiliyongxianzhuangtujiangengxindejishufangfa,liyongspot-5、ziyuan-2haogaofenbianyaoganshujujinxingshuxuezhengsheyingxiangtu(dom)shengchanjishu,weiyingyongyaoganjishufuzhugengxintudiliyongxianzhuangtujinxingyouyidechangshi,jiangtudikexuexuekejichuyanjiushuipingxiangqiantuijin。zainongyongdidiaochayupingjiafangmian,jiezhuyukaizhannongyongdifendengdingjiyugujiayanjiu,shitudizhiliangpingjiayanjiucongchengshitudikuozhanzhinongcuntudi,weitudikexuejichuyanjiudiandinglegengweikekaodejishuzhicheng。

环球体育  chengshitudijiagediaochashixinyilunguotuziyuandadiaochadezhongyaoneirongzhiyi,jiezhi2002niandiqudedechengguozhuyaoyou: yanjiulechengshitudidingjiyujizhundijiapinggudejibenlilunjicaozuoshijian,bingzongjielebufenchengshidejishutedian;zhezhongfenxilechengshidijiadongtaijiancetixidezongtishejijizhuyaoneirong、dongtaijiancexinxixitongdehuanqiutiyu、dijiazhishudecesuan,zaiyiyoushujudejichushang,shoucishibianlequanguo23gechengshidijiazhishu;zaitongyidijianeihandejichushang,duigechengshitudidingjiyujizhundijiachengguojinxingbijiao,fenxilehuanqiutiyuguochengshijizhundijiazhengtishuipingjiquyushuiping。

环球体育  tudiyaoganjiancedeyanjiujutibaokuojiyu3sjishuzhichixiatudiziyuandongtaipingjiafangfayanjiu,shengtaihuanjingyaoganjianceyanjiudengxiangneirong。tongguotudiziyuanjiancediaochayanjiu,xiugaiwanshanbingyanjiubianzhileyipijishubiaozhun、jishuguicheng、jishuguifan,duitudikexueyouguanxuekeyanjiuhezaiquanguofanweineituijintudixinxigongchengjuyouzhongyaodezuoyong。yucitongshi,zaitudiliyongyaogandongtaijianceyanjiuzhongbutongyaoganshujuyuanyingyongqianzhi、duoweiyaoganxinxizuizhironghejishu、dixingtufangshejiuzheng,jisuanjifuzhushujudinggouyufenfa、shujuhuizong,zidongshengchengtongjibaobiaoyugezhongfenxibaobiaodengfangmianjunqudeleyidingdejishutupo。

环球体育  3.tudiliyongguihuakexingxingyanjiudedaozhongshi

  tudiliyongguihuadeyanjiujutibaokuotudiyongtufenquyanjiu、tudiguihuayanjiu、tudifukenyanjiuhexiangguantudiguihuazhengceyanjiudengxiangneirong,weitudiliyongxuehetudiguihuaxuedefazhandiandinglekekaodejichu,duiyujinhouhuanqiutiyuguobianzhixianjitudiliyongzongtiguihua,shishitudiyongtuguanzhizhidutigonglekekaodejishuheshouduan。tudiliyongweiguanyanjiubaokuotudikaifa、tudizhengli、tudifuken、tudizhengzhi、shuitubaochi、shengtaihuanqiutiyu、gengdibaohu、tudibaohudengxiangguihuaneirong,zheibenshenjiushiyixiangjudadexitonggongcheng。zheixiangyanjiuzuinengtixiantudikexuexuekeshuxinghetedian,biqizhongrenheyimenxuekegengyouliyufahuiqixuekeyoushi,congergouzhuhuanqiutiyuguotudiliyongyanjiudejianshijichu。

环球体育  zaitudifukenyanjiufangmian,huanqiutiyuguozaikuangshantudikaifafukendehuanjingxiaoyingfangmianqudeyuqidejinzhan,duiyutudihuanjingtiaojianyingxiangtudiliyongfangshidexuanze,renleihuodongduitudihuanjingdeyingxianghetudikaifafukenzhenglihuodongduishengtaihuanjingdeyingxiangdengfangmianjunyouletupo。zaidalituijintudizhengliguochengzhong,quanguofanweineikaizhanletudikaifazhengliguihuadekexingxingyanjiuhefanganbianzhigongzuo,tudikexuegongzuozhejinnianlaitouruzhongduoliliangyanjiutudikaifazhengliguihuadekexingxing、fanganlunzheng、guihuashejiheshishi,qudelezhongduodeshijiyingyongchengguo。

  4.tudizichanguanlihetudichanquanzhiduyanjiubuduanshenru

环球体育  suizhetudizichanguanliwentiyanjiudeshenru,tudichanquanzhidugaige,youqinongdichanquanzhidugaige、tudishichang、tudiliuzhuan、tudichubei、tudizhengdi、zhidugaige、dijiaguanli、tudichurangfangshigaigedengxiangwentijunbeitidaoyishiricheng,zhongdianyanjiulezhongguotudiwuquanzhidudeyouguanwenti(hantudiyongyiwuquan、tudidanbaowuquandeng),duiyugaigeyuwanshanzhongguotudiwuquanzhiduyouzhezhongdadeyiyi;tongguonongcuntudichanquanzhiduyanjiu,zaijianliwanshanhuanqiutiyuguonongcuntudichanquanzhidu,yifalvxingshibaozhangnongmindehefaquanyi,guifanjititudiliuzhuandefalvzhidu,tigonglexuduoyouyidezhengcejianyi;kaizhantudishichanghetudijiagetixiyanjiu,xiaochuhuanqiutiyuguochengxiangtudishichanghuanqiutiyudemangdianheduanceng,batudishichanghetudijiageliangdabankuaiyoujijieheqilai,qudeyuqidejinzhan。ru《zhongguotudisuoyouquanxianzhuangpinggu》(yudinghua)、《qianlunhuanqiutiyuguotudishiyongquanzhidu》(houkangshun)、《huanqiutiyuguochengshitudichanquanzhiduhuanqiutiyudesilu》(chenshurong)、《xinshijizhongguotudishichanghuanqiutiyudaqushi》(hucunti)、《tudiyouxiaogongyingjizhiyanjiu》(huangwei)、《luntudichubeizhidudegoujin》(yongxiaolin)、《jitifeinonghuanqiutiyuyongdiliuzhuanshizaibixing》: (huangyongchang)、《guanyuguoyoutudishixingzhaobiaopaimaidejidiansikao》(gaoyuling)、《tudijiagezhishutixigoujianyubianzhifangfa》(wangwanmao)、《guoyoutudizulinfalvwentiyanjiuzongshu》(liyanrong)、《nongcuntudichanquanwentiyanjiu》(sunxiaozhong)、《zhongguonongcuntudizhidudechanquanjingjixuefenxi》(qianzhonghao)denglunwen,douzaizheixiefangmianyouyidingdelilunshendu,duitudiguanlishijiandouyouyidingzhidaozuoyong。

环球体育  san、tudikexuexuekehuanqiutiyudexinjinzhan

  1.duitudikexuedeneironghetixiyoulexinrenshi

  jinnianlaihuanqiutiyuguoxueshujieduitudikexuedelilunyanjiuhetudiliyongdedaliangshijian,zhishiduitudikexuedeneironghetixiyoulexinderenshihejinzhan。tudikexueshizaixiandaikexuezonghedejichushangxingchengde,shizirankexue、shehuikexuehejishukexueyoujijiehedechanwu,shibutongxingzhideduomenxuekedajiaochaxingchengdebianyuanxueke。tudikexuejuyouxianmingdejiaochaxing、zonghexingheyingyongxing。tudihetudiliyongshiduoxuekedeyanjiulingyuheyanjiuduixiang,dangranyeshitudikexuedeyanjiuduixiang,wentizaiyuruhejiedingtudikexuedexuekebianjie,goujiantudikexuedetedinglilunhefangfa,xianhuatudikexuedexuekebuketidaixingtese。zhiyouzheiyangcainengcujintudikexuexuekehuanqiutiyuhefazhandetongshi,chulihaoxiaxiangguanxuekezhijiandefengonghelianxi,xunqiugongtongfanrong,tongbufazhan。daliangshijianzhengming,zhunquedilijiehebawotudikexuedetexing,duiyutudikexuexuekefazhanzhiguanzhongyao。

环球体育  2.zuzhibianzhetudikexuexueshulunzhe

  tudikexuexuekehuanqiutiyushouxianyoulaiyuwanzhengdekexuelilunhezhishitixidegoujian。tudikexuezuoweiyimenxuekezaihuanqiutiyuguolishibuzhang,shihuanqiutiyuguokexueyuandilijiaoweinianqingdexueke,dangqianyingbatudikexuedejichulilunyanjiufangzaizhongyaodediwei。zhongguotudixuehuizuzhiyouzhiyucongshicixiangyanjiudeliliang,youjihuadikaizhanletudikexuedelilunyufangfatixidexitongyanjiu。2002nian3yuezhongguotudixuehuixueshugongzuoweiyuanhuizainanjingzhaokaigongzuohuiyijixuekehuanqiutiyuyantaohui,juedingzuzhibianxieyitaonengquanmianfanyingtudikexuexueketixi、zhishitixidebiaozhixingchubanwu: 《tudikexuecongshu》。congshugeshumudediyibianzhezhe,tongguojingbiaoyubujimingpingyixiangjiehedefangshichansheng,zuihouquedingle《tudiziyuanxue》、《tudishengtaixue》、《tudijingjixue》、《tudiguihuaxue》、《dijixue》、《tudibaohuxue》、《tudixinxixue》deng7bushumudediyizuozhe。《tudikexuecongshu》bianzhuangongzuohuiyiyizhirenwei,《tudikexuecongshu》shi“bianzhexing”xueshuzhezuo,yingfanyingtudikexuedejichulilun,jichufangfa,bingbawoqianyan,fanyingzuixindeyanjiuchengguo,yaochongfenxishouxiangguanxuekedexinsixiang、xinfangfa。《tudikexuecongshu》debianzhuanjiangduitudikexuexuekehuanqiutiyuqidaozhongyaodetuidongzuoyong。

  3.kaizhantudijibenshuyuyanjiu

  jinnianlaikaizhantudijibenshuyuyanjiuyeshitudikexuexuekehuanqiutiyudezhongdajinzhan。zheixiangyanjiuchengguozuizhongxingchengzhonghuarenmingongheguobiaozhun(gb/t)《tudijibenshuyu》,bencishourude600yutiaoshuyuweitudikexuehetudiguanlilingyushiyongdejiaoweichengshudejibenshuyu,gongfenweitudi、tudiliyong、tudijingji、tudifalv、tudidiaocha、tudiguanliliuzhang,angb/t1.6—1997《shuyubiaozhunbianxieguiding》,angainiantixidecengciguanxifenleihepaixu,suiranzheixianggongzuonanduhenda,yanjiuchengguoshangyoudaijinyibuwanshan,danwulunzenmeshuo,taweigailingyutianbushuyubiaozhundekongbai,zaipizhunbanbuhoujiyingyongyujiaoxue、keyanhetudiguanlibumen,taweiguoneiwaidexueshuhuanqiutiyuheshijigongzuodebiaozhunhua、guifanhuaqidaolelianghaodecujinzuoyong,yeweitudikexuexuekehuanqiutiyudiandingleyidingdejichu。

环球体育  4.2002niandutudikexuexueshulunwenfenxi

  genjuduizhongguoqikanwangjiansuo,lunwenbiaotizhonghanyou“tudi”cidexueshulunwengongji1512pian,qizhong,tudiliyongyou309pian,zhan20.4%;tudichengbaoyuliuzhuan246pian,zhan16.2%;tudizhidu168pian,zhan11.1%;tudishichangyujingying180pian,zhan11.8%;tudiguihua48pian,zhan3.2%;tudizhengli79pian,zhan5.2%;tudipingjia41pian,zhan2.7%;tudishengtai25pian,zhan1.6%;tudiqianli9pian,zhan0.6%;tudifa16pian,zhan1.8%;qita391pian,zhan25.4%。congshangshulunwenxuekefenleiziliaokan,chongfenfanyingtudikexuexuekedezonghexingtedian,zirankexueheshehuikexuezhongdeyouguanxuekedoucongbenxuekedetedingyanjiulingyulaiyanjiutudiwenti。tongguodui2002niantudixueshulunwendefenxi,qingchudibiaoming,zhongguotudikexuezhengzaizhengtituijin,zaizhuzhonglilunwentiyanjiudetongshi,gengjiazhuzhongshijianwentideyanjiu,zaitudiliyonghetudizichanguanlifangmianqudeleyouweituchudechengguo。

  zhibiren: wangwanmao

  cankaowenxian

  1.zhangfengrongdeng,tudichixuliyongpingjiazhibiaotixiyufangfa,zhongguonongyechubanshe,2003

环球体育  2.guotuziyuanbu,chengshitudijiagediaochayudongtaijiance,dizhichubanshe,2003

环球体育  3.zhongguotudixuehui,21shijizhongguotudikexueyujingjishehuifazhan,zhongguodadichubanshe,2003

环球体育  4.zhongguotudikexuebianjibu,《zhongguotudikexue2002nianhedingben》

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